Category Archives: Education


Diary of a SAHM – Day 602

I’ve written much about Joshayne’s language development. Today, I’m going to focus on numeracy. At 2 1/2 years old, Joshayne can count and also add up to 10 (with the help of my fingers, of course). So how did we get here?

Step 1: Getting to know numbers
We let him play with this….


He became familiarized with the shape of each numeral as he learned to fit it back into the hole where it belonged. When he picked up a number, we repeatedly told him what number it was. It didn’t take him long to know all of them.

Step 2: Learning to say one to ten in the correct order
Repetition worked wonders here. We just kept saying one to ten to him in various languages – English, Malay, Mandarin, Hokkien, Cantonese, and Japanese even. We made it fun by using different tones and funny voices. We also sang number songs, read counting books and watched LittleBabyBum videos together. After he could recite one to ten in the correct order, we proceeded to the next step.

Step 3: Let’s count
We started to count people and things around us. We held up our fingers for him to count too. We just kept counting and counting… one, two, three, four…. Even till now, when we are out and about, Joshayne might suddenly say, “Mummy, let’s count the….” and we will start counting together.

Step 4: 1 plus 1 equals to…. ?
After Joshayne had mastered the skill of counting objects, we taught him the concept of addition. This was how we went about it:-

M: One (show one finger, left hand) plus one (show another finger, right hand) equals to…? (pause) Joshayne, count.
(counting mummy’s fingers) One, two…. Two!
M: Yeah! (clap hands + funny dance) How about two plus two? Two plus two equals to…?
JD: One, two, three, four… Four!
Mummy: Four! Good job. (hugs and kisses)

We just kept playing this “game” and it was all a lot of FUN! If you have a li’l tot at home, why not give it a try?

Lest I Forget…

Diary of a SAHM – Day 541

Now that I’m not teaching in school, I’ve lost track of time. My days and weeks have blended together and I have to resort to blogging to record Joshayne’s milestones (lest I forget). This blog has, in a way, become my personal online journal+recipebook+notebook. So please do excuse the randomness of my blog posts.

Joshayne @ 2 years and 4 months old

His current favourite song is “Wheels on the Bus.” He has always loved listening to songs, and lately, he has begun to hum and sing along when we sing to/with him. Some of the songs that he can ‘sing’ are Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Happy Birthday song, Baa Baa Black Sheep, Jesus Loves Me This I Know, Walking with Jesus,  小蜜蜂,ABC song, etc.

His favourite YouTube videos are those by Little Baby Bum, Bob the Builder and Tayo the Little Bus (or because those are the few that I let him watch. Ops.)

He LOVES his toy vehicles; he plays with them EVERY DAY! He has a blue motorbike, a jet, an ambulance, two helicopters, three trains, three buses, a crane, a truck, a taxi, a bulldozer, a digger, a steamroller, and MANY cars (I’ve lost count). He can name all of them. He also has a Daddy mouse, a Mummy mouse and a Baby mouse. And he loves to play with his dad’s RERO robots too.

6 09 (3)IMG_0514

Joshayne enjoys reading books too. We go to the library together as often as we can – usually once a week or every other week. After checking out library books, he likes to help me to put them in my bag. Joshayne is also a member of i-Play and his favourite educational toys there are the wooden vehicles.


 He can roll and throw a ball but he prefers to KICK. He gets excited when we let him play on the SLIDE. He can walk, and run, and JUMP (with both feet off the ground, finally).


Sometimes he pretends to play the guitar using his badminton racquet, and he will insist that I play along with him (as he has two racquets). Sometimes he plays the keyboard/piano (an imaginary one, as we do not have the budget to buy a piano yet) or the drum (banging on any free surface), and asks me to play the violin.


He helps me with household chores – holding the dustpan when I sweep the floor, snapping beans, putting his dirty clothes into the laundry basket, putting away his toys after he is done playing with them, helping me to make the bed after he wakes up, picking up bits and pieces off the floor and throwing them into his dustbin, rinsing his own cup, etc.

5 07 (3)5 07 (1)5 07 (2)

He knows how to say PLEASE, SORRY, EXCUSE ME, THANK YOU and WELCOME and uses them in context. He will say “QUEUE UP” when we wait at the counter to pay and he will tell himself or his playmates to “WAIT FOR YOUR TURN” when they have to share a toy or take turns to play on the slide.

He will remind us to say grace before meals if we forget. He will hold his hands together in prayer and he can end the prayer saying “in Jesus’ name we pray, amen.”

He can recognise all the letters of the alphabet, both uppercase and lowercase, and he can say their letter names. He can also recite the alphabet from A to Z, though he sometimes misses M and N. He knows all the numerals and can count from one to ten in English (fluently, on his own) and also in mandarin, hokkien, teochew  and malay language (with guidance). Recently, he is in the habit of counting everything around him.


He knows the following body parts, i.e. can touch and say: head, hair, eye, eyebrow, nose, ear, mouth, tongue, teeth, cheek, chin, neck, shoulder, arm, armpit, elbow, hand, finger, tummy, leg, knee, and toe.

He knows the following COLOURS – red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, pink, brown, gray, white, and black, but he sometimes gets mixed up between purple and pink. He also knows basic SHAPES, namely circle, oval, square, rectangle, rhombus, star, cross and heart. 


Joshayne is able to solve simple puzzles like the following:

Joshayne’s favourite animals are guinea pigs, cats and ducks. From our many trips to various zoos and farms, animal picture books and songs on YouTube, Joshayne has become familiar with the following insects/animals and the sounds they make: dog (woof), cat (meow), bird (tweet), lion (roar), bear (growl), frog (ribbit), elephant (pawoo), horse (neigh), duck (quack), sheep (baa), goat (mek), pig (oink), cow (moo), rabbit, orang utan, crocodile, hippo, flamingo, deer, zebra, monkey, tiger, snake, fish, chicken,  butterfly, shark, buffalo, penguin, mouse, giraffe, etc.

6 28 (4)6 06 (1)IMG_20150405_1551056 13 (15)

That’s quite an achievement for a li’l tot, I think (of course, my opinion is biased!). Hehe. Anyway, it has been an exciting journey of discovery for us as a family and it is such a joy to explore the world with Joshayne. He has given us the opportunity to see the world from another perspective – that of a little child!

Don’t grow up too fast my little baby boy.

Personal Observations and also Reminders to Self:
* Little toddlers are like sponge, eagerly absorbing new knowledge and picking up new skills. We need to provide them with learning opportunities. Learning is FUN and we should keep it that way for our children, who naturally ENJOY learning new things.

* I’ve been amazed over and over again every time I witness Joshayne picking up a new skill and progressing in his language development etc. I guess it’s natural for me to be filled with a motherly-pride over his accomplishments. At the same time, I also realise (or rather constantly have to remind myself) that he’s just like any other kids – he is not above others. There is no need to compare. There is no need to push him to perform, but to let him develop at his own pace.

Up-cycling >>> DIY Toys/Learning Tools

            Diary of a SAHM – Day 509

Secret Recipe box (from Joshayne’s last birthday) + coloured paper + tools [cutter, double-sided tape, super glue, etc.] = DIY Edu-box
*learn to count 1 to 5 + shapes (square, rectangle, oval)


Empty milk cartons + tools [cutter, blu-tack] = tumbling track
* just for FUN (i.e. to keep the li’l one entertained for 5-10 mins)

Ribbon + Buttons + Pieces of cloth (with a slit in the middle) = Button Snake
*learn how to button and unbutton, improve his fine motor skills


Storage bottles + green beans/rice + cellophane tape (to seal the bottles) = rattles
*learn to shake the bottles in rhythm or to make “music”


Moo… Woof… Meow… Oink… Baa… Tweet…

Diary of a SAHM – Day 490

In my previous post, I shared about Joshayne’s fascination with all things on wheels and how we seized the opportunity to teach him about various types of vehicles and their parts. Apart from that, we have also been trying to get him acquainted with various animals (and insects); and what better way to introduce him to the world of animals than to let him see for himself? Thus began our visits to “animal places,” i.e. zoos, farms, parks etc.

i. Lost World of Tambun, Ipoh Perak

We went to the Lost World of Tambun together with my parents in November last year. We only paid RM30 per pax as we managed to get discounted tickets; the normal rates were RM50.00 for adults and  RM43.00 for children under 12. We went during a weekend so there were many visitors but it wasn’t too overcrowded since it wasn’t a public holiday and the school holidays had not started yet. We thoroughly enjoyed our leisurely stroll through the petting zoo and the entertaining tiger feeding show.

At the petting zoo, we were welcomed by Ruby, the super adorable raccoon. Then we walked through a transparent tunnel to look at different species of snakes in the serpentarium. Can you spot the cold-blooded reptiles in the following pictures?

*I absolutely love this candid shot!

The Bird Paradise, which boasted 500 birds from 18 species, was quite impressive. In the aviary, the birds roamed freely in a natural setting.


There were many other animals at the Rock Canopy, Rabbit Wonderland, Marmoset Tree House, Tortoise Kingdom and Rainforest Trail, etc.

Here are some of the pictures that Kiate managed to capture.



*Roar* The Siberian tigers @ Tiger Valley

ii. Penang Butterfly Farm, Penang

Butterfly Farm is a very famous tourist attraction in Penang. We visited the Butterfly Farm in January this year when Ain and her friend, Miriam, came to visit. Admission fees for foreign visitors were RM27 for adults and RM15 for children under 12. Domestic visitors (upon presentation of MyKad/MyKid) were entitled to a 33.3% discount. Even with the discount, I still found it overpriced (RM18); it took us less than 45 minutes to finish touring the whole site. To its credit, though, the place was very well-maintained and potentially educational IF you read the signs and paid attention to the guided tour. I didn’t get to do either as I was busy entertaining a little tot who just discovered the joy of stamping – undoubtedly the main attraction for him here.


We saw many beautiful butterflies, and even pupae (chrysalis) and caterpillars. In addition, there were also giant millipedes, lizards, ducks, frogs, scorpions, stick and leaf insects, spiders, etc. Joshayne was only interested in the ducks!

*Penang Butterfly Farm is currently closed to public as upgrading works are in progress. It will re-open in December 2015.

iii. Tunku Abdul Rahman Aquarium of the Fisheries Research Institute, Penang (Bayan Lepas)

This was one of our unplanned weekend trip (April’15) that turned out to be very enjoyable. The aquarium was well-maintained and there were many species of fish and other marine life here to keep the little one entertained for half-an-hour or so. The admission fees were only RM5 for adults and RM2 for children under 12. Joshayne was thrilled to see the fishes on display and kept pointing excitedly at them while saying “fish, fish”, “eye” and “tail.”



iv. Taiping Zoo, Perak

We went to Taiping Zoo on a Saturday, which was also a public holiday (Agong’s birthday) and the last weekend of a two-week school break; and as expected, the zoo was packed! Entry tickets (inclusive of GST) were reasonably priced at RM17 for adults and RM8.50 for children.

Daddy and Mummy were excited as this was our first trip to the zoo with Joshayne, but the li’l one was unimpressed – as evident in his “cool” expression (or rather, the lack of expressions) in the pictures below. I’m really glad that Kiate managed to capture pictures of the animals though; Joshayne responded positively when I showed him the pictures a few days later and he was able to identify some of the animals. In hindsight, his indifference during the visit could be due to the crowd and also the hot and humid weather (he was sweating profusely).

6 06 (1)6 06 (17)6 06 (20)6 06 (2)

At Taiping Zoo, we saw orang utans, chimpanzees, monkeys, bears, wild boars, elephants, zebras, camels, giraffes, deer, crocodiles, different species of birds, lions, otters, etc. I’m sure there were more, but I can’t recall all. Ops. Here are some of the pictures….

6 06 (8)6 06 (7)6 06 (22)6 06 (9)6 06 (12)6 06 (21)6 06 (23)6 06 (25)6 06 (26)

6 06 (13)6 06 (27)6 06 (18)6 06 (19)

6 06 (24)

v. Countryside Stable, Penang (Sg. Burung, Balik Pulau)

This was another unplanned visit (June’15). We went to Balik Pulau with Angelia and while eating durian at one of the stalls, we saw the Countryside Stable sign by the roadside. Since it was nearby, we decided to check it out. The stable was very well-kept and the admission fees were only RM5 for adults and RM3 for children under 12. We bought a tray of imported hay (RM5) to feed the horses. There were perhaps around 30 horses and ponies of various breeds, a few donkeys and two deer.  Joshayne was wary of the big animals and kept a safe distance.

6 13 (5)6 13 (24)6 13 (7)6 13 (12)6 13 (23)

On our way home, we saw this aviary by the river bank. We parked the car and came out to admire the beautiful birds (for FREE). They were amazingly colourful. It was the highlight of the day for Joshayne.

6 13 (15)6 13 (16)

vi. Saanen Dairy Goat Farm, Penang (Balik Pulau)

I first came to know about this goat farm through a blog. It was highly recommended for families with young children and received many favourable reviews on TripAdvisor. After waiting for months, we finally had the opportunity to visit Saanen Dairy Goat Farm last weekend. And indeed, it lived up to our expectations. Visitors are welcomed to tour the farm and feed the goats for FREE. How awesome is that!

Joshayne took a while to warm up to the goats; but with a bit of coaxing, he finally mustered up the courage to feed them. He fell in love with the guinea pig (pictured below) though – he reached out to stroke it without any prompting from me. Besides the goats and guinea pig, we also saw chickens, rabbits, dogs, sheep, and also cows (on our way home).

6 28 (4)6 28 (3)6 28 (5)

6 28 (6)6 28 (8)
*Joshayne enjoyed the fresh goat’s milk; he finished the whole bottle within minutes (probably because it was chilled). RM7 per bottle (250ml).

6 28 (1)6 28 (2)6 28 (17)

All Things on Wheels

Diary of a SAHM – Day 474

I cannot remember exactly when and how it started, but some time towards the end of last year Joshayne became interested in all things on wheels and to date he has not stopped. Since he is fascinated by vehicles, I seized the opportunity to teach him new vocabs – various types of vehicles and their parts.

Here are some of our activities:-

1) Sing the song “The Wheels on the Bus” and do the actions together.

The wheels on the bus go round and round.
round and round, round and round.
The wheels on the bus go round and round,
all through the town!

*wipers – swish, swish, swish
*lights – blink, blink, blink
*horn – beep beep beep
*engine – vroom vroom vroom, etc.

2) When we go for walks around the neighbourhood,  I’d sometimes stop near a car parked by the roadside and point out parts of the car to Joshayne. For example, I’d say “bumper” while pointing at the car bumper and Joshayne would repeat after me. Using this method, he has picked up words such as side mirror, lights, bumper, door, window, etc.

3) Point out or draw his attention to various types of vehicles while on the road; for example, truck, motorbike, taxi, cement mixer lorry, van, bus, steam roller, excavator, etc.

4) For his 2nd birthday, we bought mini toy vehicles to decorate his birthday cakes. Read about it here. He is still playing with these toy vehicles every day and he has learnt all their “names” – motorbike, car, truck, steam roller, ambulance, bus, taxi, bulldozer, crane, jet.

4 19  (1)4 20 (1)IMG_20150615_215653 (1)6 09 (3)6 09 (4)

5) We bought a set of jigsaw puzzles for him. There are 8 puzzles – helicopter, car, train, tricycle, ship, motorbike, hot-air balloon and aeroplane. After only two days, he was able to complete the puzzles on his own. I used the puzzles to teach him the ‘parts’. For example, I’d pick up one piece of the puzzle and he’d tell me what it was and to which vehicle it belonged. From these puzzles, he learnt words such as handlebar, seat, float, rotor, cockpit, wing, wheel etc.

Toys (1)

6) We also ‘read’ books about things on wheels.

7) When we were in KL for a friend’s wedding in May, we took him on his FIRST train ride (actually, it was an LRT – from Kelana Jaya station to University station and back). We also boarded a stationary public bus just to take photos.

5 03 (1)5 03 (2)

5 03 (4)5 03 (5)5 03 (6)

P/S If you have any other ideas, feel free to share by leaving a comment. I’d love to hear from you.

Words and Phrases…

Diary of a SAHM – Day 467

In my previous post, I wrote about JD’s language development up till his second birthday. Since then, he has picked up new words and begun to  string words together to form phrases and simple sentences. What I found most amusing is how his pronunciation of certain words has ‘evolved’ over time. For example, he used to call me “mammi-ah,” and then for quite some time he addressed me as  “nee”. I tried to teach him to say “mummy” but he ended up calling me “money” (ma-nee). So please don’t be horrified if you hear my little tot saying “Love money.” *gasp*

Now, Joshayne is finally able to say “motorbike” – all three syllables. In the beginning, he only said “bike” when referring to a motorcycle. And then in early or mid-May, he kept saying “terh-bike” (the last two syllables). I couldn’t help laughing each time he said that. Then, one day out of the blue (May 23rd, if I’m not mistaken), he said “mo-tor-bike”! Woohoo…. *applause*

In addition, “butterfly” is now a “butterfly” and not just a “fly.” He is now able to say “elephant”, whereas previously he could only say “phant”. Other three-syllable words that he has mastered are crocodile, aeroplane, umbrella and bicycle. I guess we can conclude that Joshayne can handle multiple syllable words but three is the limit for now. He is currently saying “helpter” to refer to a helicopter and “mixer” to refer to a cement mixer lorry.

Here is a list of “new” words (+ improved “old” words)  to add to Joshayne’s Vocab List:~

utan (orang utan)

mixer (cement mixer)
handle bar
helpter (helicopter)
steam roller
dump truck

唱歌 (to sing)
take photo



high heels
多多 (a lot)
shy shy
Uncle Bob

He has begun to string words together. Phrases/simple sentences that he uses are….

kick + ball
(who?) + eat, for example Daddy, eat. Uncle, eat.
see you later
love + (who?), for example Love Daddy.
miss you
(who?) + 唱歌,for example 姨姨唱歌 (Aunty is singing)
put here
please put there
turn on/off
switch on/off
railway track
sharp teeth
bite you
read book
take photo
crack egg
fry egg
(whose?) + turn, for example Joshayne’s turn. Mummy’s turn.
birthday cake
(colour) + (vehicle), for example Blue car. White truck.
Where’s (what? who?), for example Where’s Daddy? Where’s Monkey?
Let’s go
Burst your bubble.
Wash your bum bum.

*updated 16th June 2015, Day 473

Online Courses Part II

Diary of a SAHM – Day 446

In my earlier post Free Online Courses, I mentioned that I’d completed a course on Early Childhood Education and enrolled for another. Well, I have completed my second online course  Financial Literacy and signed up for yet another TWO courses, Mobile Robotics and Entrepreneurship and Family Business. Yeah, I’m addicted!

For my second course, I didn’t manage to take down notes like what I did previously. Basically, I just watched the videos, tried to understand the lectures and then completed the quizzes and assessments. Anyway, the content was not “foreign” to me as my parents have taught me from young to spend within my means, to save and invest, and so on. Nevertheless, the course did solidify my understanding and above all remind me to be intentional in teaching Joshayne about money and financial planning so that he doesn’t stumble into financial pitfalls.

Before I end this post, let me share with you some interesting ‘tidbits’ from the course:

– The 5 roads to wealth are (i) to inherit a fortune, (ii) to marry into it, (iii) to strike a windfall, (iv) to steal  and (v) to SAVE.

– The 12 signs of SCAM

  1. Quick profits
  2. High and regular returns
  3. Secret and complex strategy
  4. Urgency
  5. Exclusivity
  6. Social network based
  7. Dominant individual
  8. Prolific spending
  9. Paperwork issues
  10. Redemption issues
  11. Impossible to contact
  12. Lots of legal actions

And finally, here’s my cert for completing this course, which was conducted by Peter Mordaunt and Paul Clitheroe of Macquarie University, Australia.


JD’s Language Development

Diary of a SAHM

A few years back, I came across a TED Talk video – “Deb Roy: The Birth of a Word.” In this video, Deb Rob, an MIT researcher, shared his study on how his infant son learned language. You can read more about the experiment here and here. In short, he “wired” the whole house to record the language that his child received and produced from the moment the infant was brought home. 

Personally, I’ve always had an interest in language development in children. I’m curious to find out how they come to understand and speak a language, how they learn their ABC’s and so on. So, sometime in September’14, when JD was around 17mo, I started to keep a record of his utterances. It’s rather fascinating to observe his language development from unintelligible babbling to comprehensible words and now, simple 2-3 word sentences. I’ll “park” the list here for future reference.

12-18 months old

谢谢 (xie xie = thank you)
妹妹 (mei mei = younger sister)
弟弟 (di di = younger brother)
Che che (hokkien for older sister)

饿饿 (er er = hungry)
Mammi ar
拿(na = to take)
宝贝 (bao bei = dear/precious)
Ouh Ouh (dog)
猫 (Mao = cat)
Nen nen (milk)

19 months old

臭臭 (chou chou = smelly)
一 二 (yi er = one two)
Mah mah (to address his grandmother)
要 (yao = want)
坐车 (zuo che = go for a car ride)
不要 (bu yao =  don’t want)
布 (bu = kitchen towel)

抹抹  (ma ma = to wipe)
收 (shou = to put away/keep)
One two three
Poo poo
Pee pee
Eyo (referring to rero)
Bot (short for robot)
Papple (apple)
踏踏 (ta ta = to step on something)
Teito (referring to potato)
Nana (referring to Minion/ short for banana)
Ter (short for water)
抱抱 (bao bao = to hug/carry)

20 months old

Pop popopo pop (chicken sound)
Tar (referring to car)

烧 (shao = hot)
Atutu (??)
Newt (referring to milk)
Pis (for please)
Bum bum
Sowee (for sorry)
Choo choo (referring to train)
Bable (referring to table)
Four five six
Eight nine
Tei (ten)
Teitu (for thank you)

21 months old

Men (short for amen)
Up there
Chin up
Bow (for elbow)
Pippo (referring to hippopotamus)
有, 没有 (you, mei you = have, don’t have)

跌倒 (tie dao = fell down)
湿湿 (shi shi = wet)
抱抱 please (bao bao = please carry me)
Walk walk
走 (zou = walk)
Fook (referring to frog)
Fur (referring to flower)
Night (short for good night)
Love you
喝 (he = to drink)
Eat / 吃 (chi)
Tle (short for kettle)
Bike (short for motorbike)
Shayne (referring to himself, short for Joshayne)
High / 高高 (ga0 ga0)
Grange (for orange)
好 (hao = good)
Brella (short for umbrella)
Swatch / shart (referrring to watch)
Spush (referring to spoon)
Yi yi (hokkien for aunty)
Koko (hokkien for older brother)
Gong gong (to address his grandfather)
舅舅 (jiu jiu = uncle)
Tioh tioh (hokkien for uncle)
羊羊 (yang yang = goat)
Fly (short for butterfly)
Sicle (referring to bicycle)

22 months old

Pen (short for open) /开 (kai)
Close / 关 (guan)
Fold / 折 (zhe)
Xi (short for gong xi 恭喜)
K’you (short for thank you)
Bau (short for hung bao 红包)
Phan (short for elephant)
Met (short for helmet)
头 (tou = head)

面面 (mian mian = noodles)
Please help
Top (short for laptop)
See saw

Leg / 脚 (jiao)

23 months old

Baa baa
洗手 (xi shou = wash hand)
Press / 压压 (ya ya)
Throw / 丢 (diu)
Kick / 踢 (ti)
Fill, refill
Cuum (short for vacuum)
给 (gei = give)
Bite / 咬 (yao)
Read book
Tweet tweet tweet
Dow (short for window)
Quack quack
Moo moo
Key (short for monkey)
Kern (short for chicken)
Guin (short for penguin)
Dile (short for crocodile)

Sweet corn
Fu (short for tofu)
Kret (referring to carrot)
Melon (short for watermelon)
Nion (short for onion)
Cream (short for ice cream)
Ghurt (short for yoghurt)
Red bean
Yum (referring to Calciyum)

痛痛 (tong tong = painful)
Ty (dirty)
Dark / 暗暗 (an an)
Cold / 冷冷 (leng leng)
重重 (zhong zhong = heavy)
Hi, Hey
Yes, No
On, Off

Joshayne’s Vocabulary at 2 Years of Age

Word I

Word II

Free Online Courses

Diary of a SAHM

Some time back, I searched for free online courses on Early Childhood Education (ECE) and I found this –, a free online course platform that is backed by Open Universities Australia (OUA). It offers many free courses on a wide range of topics. After reading and understanding how it works, I signed up and enrolled in an ECE course conducted by Caitlin O’Connell and Helen Lawrence from Gowrie Victoria. I completed this course and subsequently enrolled in another one. Yes, it is addictive!

I love the way the courses were structured because it suited my current needs. I have always loved learning (and sitting for exams even) but now as a full-time SAHM, I don’t have the luxury of spending uninterrupted hours reading, working on assignments and preparing for exams. For the ECE course, which ran over four weeks, I only had to watch short videos (around 3-10 minutes each; total video time was less than 3 hours) and take a quiz after each lesson. In addition, there were four assessments; each comprised 10 multiple-choice questions. That’s pretty simple, right? Anyway, it worked out great for me. I was able to keep up with my day-to-day chores, spend time with Joshayne and satisfy my thirst for learning. Completing the course also gave me a sense of achievement.

From this course, I learnt about child development (from birth to 5 years of age). It gave me a clearer picture of what to expect as Joshayne progresses through each stage: infant > toddler > pre-schooler.

NOTES from the lectures:
*Between 12 months and 3 years, children can understand a lot more language than they can actually use themselves.

*Children 3 to 5 years of age seek recognition for their skills and abilities.

*Learning through play is crucial for their development.

*Stages of play: Solitary > Parallel (play alongside but without any interaction) > Cooperative > Games with rules.

*How to support play?
     – Indoors and Outdoors activities
     – Let them be FREE to play; don’t place our own agendas on them
     – Give them ample TIME
     – Provide them with the RESOURCES

*It’s important for children to know where they BELONG in the world, have the right to BE children, and to be supported to BECOME the best they can be.

*Children can develop resilience (the ability to bounce back) when they know they have people in their lives who love them and that they can trust.

*To promote imagination/creativity
     – Give them lots of open-ended materials.
     – Allow them uninterrupted time.
     – Let them to do things their way.

*Most children are naturally optimistic and have a capacity for hope. Do NOT speak negatively to/about them. Do NOT belittle them.

*When offering a child options, the choice are best designed so that adults are happy that either choice is SAFE and WORKABLE for both them and the child.

B for Banana